Society for the Teaching of Psychology: Division 2 of the American Psychological Association

Gender Resources


Benokraitis, N. V. (1997). Subtle sexism: Current practice and prospects for change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
This edited volume explores how subtle sex discrimination affects women and men, particularly in organizational and academic settings. The final section of the book addresses how to change subtle sexism practices.

Blakemore, J. E. O., Berenbaum, S. , & Liben, L. S. (2008). Gender Development. New York: Psychology Press.
This textbook discusses gender development from infancy through adolescence and incorporates a biological, social, and cognitive perspective on gender development. The text emphasizes gender role behaviors.

Bronstein, P., & Quina, K. (Eds.).(2003). Teaching gender and multicultural awareness: Resources for the psychology classroom. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
This edited book contains chapters dealing with topics covered across the psychology curriculum. Each chapter discusses how to include issues of diversity into the topics and presents exercises and activities to infuse into these areas.

Chin, J. L. (Ed.). (2000). Relationships among Asian American women. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
This edited volume contains important issues related to women, including topics such as sexism, working versus stay-at-home mothers, African American women in the workforce, and GLBTQ youth.

Chin, J. L. (Ed.). (2004). The psychology of prejudice and discrimination. Vol. 3: Bias based on gender and sexual orientation. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Volume 3 in a comprehensive four volume set that focuses on the prejudice and discrimination and its underpinnings in American society. Each volume addresses different biases, with in the same psychological context. The main theme is the psychological tendency to think negatively about those different from oneself. This volume focuses on the sexual biases relating to gender and sexual orientation.

Chrisler, J.C., & McCreary, D.R. (Eds.) (2010). Handbook of gender research in psychology: Vol. 1. Gender research in general and experimental psychology. New York, NY: Springer.

Volume 1 of the Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology focuses on “the latest ideas, theories, and findings in gender as applied to both women and men (and where appropriate, boys and girls), including sexual minorities. In this volume, contributors critique strengths and limitations of current research, discuss methodological issues from recruiting participants to communicating results, and address cultural and other diversity considerations that have often been absent from the field.“ [from Abstract]

Chrisler, J.C., & McCreary, D.R. (Eds.) (2010). Handbook of gender research in psychology: Vol. 2. Gender research in social and applied psychology. New York, NY: Springer.

Volume 2 of the Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology addresses such topics as the ongoing gender issues in personality assessment, the role of gender in developing and maintaining relationships, and controversies such as whether a male practitioner can be a feminist therapist and whether the concept of gender identity disorder is outdated. Volume 2 of the Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology covers these critical areas: personality and personality testing; abnormal and clinical psychology, including gendered aspects of depression, body image, and eating disorders; psychotherapy with women, men, couples, and families; social psychology, including intimate relationships, group behavior, and gender prejudice; work, the workplace, and leadership; health care and health behaviors; and special topics, from the media to the military. “ [from Abstract]

Cole, E., & Henderson-Daniel, J. (Eds.). (2005). Featuring females: Feminist analyses of media. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

This book analyzes the portrayals of women in a variety of outlets including reality television shows, films, print and electronic news programming, magazines, video games, and commercial advertising.

Comas-Diaz, L., & Greene, B. (1994). Women of color: Integrating ethnic and gender identities in psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press.
This edited book was one of the first that discussed the intersection of women and ethnicity in psychotherapy. The authors discuss issues concerning lesbians, professional women, mixed-race women, battered women, and refugee women.

Crawford, M. (2011). Transformations: Women, gender, and psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.

This text focuses on the psychology of women, in relation to both prior and current theories. The author defines the notion of gender not based on traits, but instead based on how it affects a person’s social standing and power. A main idea of the text is that gender affects everyone throughout their lifetime.

Eagly, A. H., Beall, A. E., & Sternberg, R. J. (Eds.). (2005). The psychology of gender (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
The authors discuss such topics as organization and activational effects of sex hormones, evolutionary influences on sex-role behaviors, processes of gender development and socialization, and gender inequality and stereotypes. The authors provide current, updated information from various theoretical perspectives including biological, social-cognitive, psychoanalytic.

Eckes, T. & Trautner, H. M. (2000). The developmental social psychology of gender. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
This edited book addresses the fundamental interrelatedness of developmental change and social influence on gender. Chapters are organized into three sections: theoretical approaches to the topic; gender categorization and interpersonal behavior; and gender, groups, and culture.

Felson, R. B. (2002). Violence and gender reexamined. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
This book challenges one of Western culture’s most deeply held assumptions: violence against women is different from violence against men. The author argues that motives for violence against men and women are similar, and challenges preconceptions about gender and violence.

Geffner, R., & Mantooth, C. (2000). Ending spouse/partner abuse: A psychoeducational approach for individuals and couples. New York: Springer.
This is a workbook for clinicians to assist in couples therapy to reduce spousal abuse by utilizing techniques such as communication, self-control, assertiveness training, and examining intimacy issues. The model used incorporates a range of theories and the overall work provides comprehensive instructions for 26 weekly sessions.

Harway, M., & Hansen, M. (1993). Spouse abuse: Assessing and treating battered women, batterers, and their children. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.
The text discusses background spouse abuse such as what families are likely to encounter violence, the occurrence of violence, and types of people who seek treatment. Procedures are included how to assess spouse abuse based on which partner originally presents and what to do in a crisis situation. There are also guidelines for therapy with both the abusive spouse and the spouse being abused, and how to handle children involved.

Helgeson, V. S. (2004). Psychology of gender (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Prentice Hall.
The Psychology of Gender uses social, biological, psychological, and cultural elements to discuss theories of gender and gender development.

Halpern, D. F. (2000). Sex differences in cognitive abilities (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
The author provides an insightful, comprehensive review of research on sex differences and similarities. She presents empirical evidence for cognitive differences between the sexes in various domains such as memory, visual-spacial abilities, verbal abilities, and perceptual and motor skills. The book also outlines different theoretical perspectives: biological, psychosocial, and biopsychosocial.

Halpern, D. F., Beninger, A. S., & Straight, C.I A. (2011). Sex differences in intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg &  S. B. Kaufman (Eds.). The Cambridge handbook of intelligence (pp. 253-272). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

This chapter reviews and evaluates research on sex differences in cognitive abilities and explores potential implications of differences for education and policy decisions.

Harway, M., & O'Neil, J. M. (Eds.). (1999). What causes men's violence against women? Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
This edited book discusses a model developed by Harway and O’Neil on the factors contributing to male violence against women, followed by examining biological, socialization, relational interactional, and macrosocietal factors contributing to the problem, concluding with an integration of these factors into the initial Harway and O’Neil model.

Howard, J. A., & Hollander, J. (1997). Gendered situations, gendered selves. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
These sociologists provide a gendered analysis of social psychology, analyzing the major social psychological perspectives on gender. Their focus is on the ways in which gender is socially constructed.

Hyde, J. S (2007). Half the human experience: The psychology of women (7th Ed.). Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
This excellent textbook has chapters on gender stereotypes and gender differences, language, emotion, lifespan development, women and work, and women’s health.

Johnson, A. G. (1997). The gender knot: Unraveling our patriarchal legacy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
A highly readable book about gender, gender roles, and how beliefs about masculinity and femininity affect our society.

Koss, M. P., Goodman, L. A., Browne, A., Fitzgerald, L. F., Keita, G. P., & Russo, N. F. (1994). No safe haven: Male violence against women at home, at work, and in the community. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
This is a classic book covering violence against women in every area of their lives: home, work, and the community. This book documents the prevalence of violence in these three domains and the issues surrounding them.

Lakoff, R. (1975). Language and women's place. New York: Harper & Row.
This text is commonly thought to be the spark that ignited the area of research involving language and feminism. There is a focus on how language pertaining to women differs in two ways, the way in which people refer to women, and the words that women are more likely to use.

Landrine, H. (Ed.). (1995). Bringing cultural diversity to feminist psychology: Theory, research, and practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
This edited book covers various topics related to the intersection of cultural diversity and feminist psychology, such as methodological issues, feminist practices in the delivery of services to ethnic minorities, and ethnic identity among women.

Lee, J. W. (2005). Psychology of gender identity. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
This text brings international research together to discuss the variety of factors that affect gender development such as childhood, personality, appearance, romantic relationships, and education. The notion is that gender is not merely biological sex, but rather the social expectations that accompany gender and how gender can influence mood, behavior, coping, social interaction, self-image.

Lippa, R. A. (2005). Gender, nature, and nurture (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
The author provides a comprehensive analysis of sex differences and, as the title suggests, reviews the evidence for the influence of both nature and nurture on the behavior of boys and girls and women and men.

Maccoby, E., & Jacklin, C. (1974/1978/1987). The psychology of sex differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
This book provides reviews of empirical studies and commentaries about the research studies which address a wide variety of topics in the area of gender development and differences that emerge between genders. The book is divided into three parts which have the following themes, Part One- Intellect and Achievement, Part Two-Social behavior, and Part Three-Origins of psychological sex differences.

Magnusson, E., & Marecek, J. (2012). Gender and culture in psychology: Theories and practices. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.  

This book brings together research and theory from feminist psychology, sociocultural psychology, discursive psychology, and critical psychology in order to detail new approaches to the psychological study of gender.

Matlin, M. W. (2004). The psychology of women (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thompson Wadsworth.
This well-regarded textbook provides an excellent overview of many issues that affect women at all life stages. Includes chapters on gender stereotypes, women’s relationships, gender comparisons, women’s health, violence against women, and women at work.

Paludi, M. A. (2004). Praeger guide to the psychology of gender. Westport, CT.: Praeger Publishers.
This handbook address the beliefs of the popular media about gender psychology and how there is no actual research to back many of these misconceptions. The main idea is that there are actually more similarities between the genders than differences.

Philpot, C. L., Brooks, G. R., & Lusterman, D. (1997). Bridging separate gender worlds: Why men and women clash and how therapists can bring them together. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
This is a book for therapists that provide gender sensitive techniques that can be used in the context of any form of intervention. It will help the therapist to make sense of the often confusing modern gender expectations.

Rabin, C. L. (Ed.). (2005). Understanding gender and culture in the helping process: Practitioners' narratives from global perspectives. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
This text is a compilation of narratives from practitioners from around the world discussing their experiences working with their respective cultures and also with diverse populations. The focus is to use an integrated approach to better help clients by understanding gender, culture, and ethnicity.

Rogers, W. S., & Rogers, R. S. (2001). The psychology of gender and sexuality. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
This textbook addresses gender and sexuality from a psychological perspective and examines how the two factors influence a person’s thoughts, feelings, and actions. The advantage of this text is that is uses a variety of theories, old and new, to help introduce the concepts of gender and sexuality and explain how they are developed and maintained.

Roughgarden, J. (2004). Evolutions rainbow: Diversity, gender, and sexuality in nature and people. Berkeley: University of California Press.
This is an innovative text which explains that diversity is a product of genes and hormones which cause the gender differences in behavior and appearance. The text approaches scientific concepts from the feminist and gay perspective to change the current notions of sexuality.

Travis, C. B., & White, J. W. (Eds.). (1999). Sexuality, society, and feminism. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
This text is a compilation of essay from some of the premiere feminist scholars takes a feminist perspective in discussing female sexuality. This involves sexuality at an individual level and in society.

Unger, R. K. (Ed.). (2001). Handbook of the psychology of women and gender. New York: John Wiley.
This handbook provides a comprehensive look at the main theories and recent findings in the areas of women and gender. It brings together a wide-range of traditional and modern research while placing an emphasis on cross-cultural issues. The text also explores the influences on the development of gender and how gender affects mental health.

Worell, J. (Ed.). (2001). Encyclopedia of women and gender: Sex similarities and differences and the impact of society on gender. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
This two volume set encyclopedia is intended for students, researchers, and clinicians alike to provide a comprehensive compilation of current research pertaining to women and gender. It covers a broad scope of categories such as, but not limited to, androcentrism, test bias, body image, and friendship styles.

Articles and Book Chapters

Azar, B. (2000). A new stress paradigm for women. Monitor on Psychology, 31(7), 42–43.
This article reveals research findings concerning the tend-and-befriend stress response model for women. Available online at:

Bornstein, R. F., & Masling, J. M. (Eds.). (2002). The psychodynamics of gender and gender role. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
This book is the final volume in the Empirical Studies in Psychoanalytic Theories Series. The text presents essays focusing on defense, coping, psychopathology, child development, unconscious processing, and personality functioning. All of the essays provide empirical research to bring understanding to the modern psychoanalytic view of gender and gender roles.

Brandt, M. J. (2011). Sexism and gender inequality across 57 societies. Psychological Science, 22(11), 1413-1418. doi:10.1177/0956797611420445

Longitudinal data from 57 societies was analyzed to investigate the relationship between individuals’ sexism and gender inequality on a societal level. Multilevel modeling showed that sexism directly predicted increases in gender inequality.  Possible mechanisms for this effect are outlined.

Bussey, K. (2011). Gender identity development. In S.J. Schwartz, Luyckx, K., & Vignoles, V. L. (Eds.) Handbook of identity theory and research  (pp. 603-628). Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7988-9_25.

This chapter reviews a variety of social science approaches to gender identity and presents an in-depth analysis of gender identity development from the perspective of social cognitive theory.

Chamberlin, J. (2004). Threats within. Monitor on Psychology, 35(10), 101.
This article discusses 'stereotype threat' that includes gender-based stereotype threat. Available online at:

Colangelo, J. J., & Keefe-Cooperman, K. (2012). Understanding the impact of childhood sexual abuse on women’s sexuality. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 34(1), 14-37.

This article provides counselors with information about the prevalence of child sexual abuse among women in different populations and research on its impact on women's sexuality.  A case study is used to illustrate practice implications.

Crawford, N. (2003). Understanding children's atypical gender behavior. Monitor on Psychology, 34(8), 40–42.
This article describes a support group for parents of children with gender variance. Available online at:

DeAngelis, T. (2001). Are men emotional mummies? Monitor on Psychology, 32(11), 40–41.
In this article, psychologists share their theories on the emotional expressiveness of men. Available online at:

DeAngelis, T. (2004). Opening up the field. Monitor on Psychology, 35(10), 88–89.
This article discusses promoting multiculturalism in women's sports. Available online at:

Deaux, K., & LaFrance, M. (1998). Gender. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology, Vol. 1 (4th ed., pp. 788–827). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
The authors offer a comprehensive review of the social psychology of gender.

Dittmann, M. (2003). Anger across the gender divide. Monitor on Psychology, 34(3), 53.
This article discusses research how men and women differ in expression of anger. Available online at:

Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review, 109, 573–598.
This article provides a theoretical review of the factors that discourage women from pursuing leadership roles and their limited ability to succeed when they do obtain leadership positions.

Eagly, A. H., & Wood, W. (2011). Feminism and the evolution of sex differences and similarities. Sex Roles, 64(9-10), 758-767.

This article introduces a special issue of Sex Roles that presents the sometimes contradictory and sometimes complementary perspectives of evolutionary psychologists and feminist psychologists on gender and sex differences.  The authors propose “an integrative evolutionary framework that recognizes human culture in both ultimate and proximal causes of female and male behavior. “

Gergen, M. (2010). Teaching psychology of gender from a social constructionist standpoint. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34(2), 261-264. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2010.01567.x

Describes three dilemmas encountered and addressed during the author’s two decades of teaching psychology courses, including the psychology of gender.  These dilemmas concern: (1) the claim that psychology is a unified, empirically based science similar to the natural sciences, (2) the claim of value-neutrality, and (3) the emphasis on lecture-based knowledge transmission rather than the relational form of knowing associated with feminist pedagogy.

Giresi, M., & Groscup, J. (2006). Incarcerated transgender people. Monitor on Psychology, 37(3), 43.
This article discusses the lack of research on transgender inmates. Available online at:

Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (2001). An ambivalent alliance: Hostile and benevolent sexism as complementary justifications for gender inequality. American Psychologist, 56, 109–118.
The authors examine the proposition that there are two separate, but related, dimensions to modern sexism.

Good, J. J., & Moss-Racusin, C. (2010). "But, that doesn't apply to me": Teaching college students to think about gender. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34(3), 418-421. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2010.01586.x

The authors describe an experiential learning course designed to counter the following barriers to students’ understanding of the role of gender in their lives: (1) a general disengagement with gender themes, (2) anti-feminist backlash, and (3) the invisibility of male privilege.

Greer, M. (2005). Keeping them hooked in. Monitor on Psychology, 36(6), 60–62.
This article discusses keeping men comfortable with seeking and staying in therapy. Addresses gender roles which may prevent this. Available online at:

Greer, M. (2005). What are these guys thinking? Monitor on Psychology, 36(6), 64–65.
This article discusses the increasing number of workshops addressing the understanding of men. Available online at:

Hines, M. (2011). Gender development and the human brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 34, 69-88.

This article presents evidence that prenatal exposure to testosterone, influences the development of sex differences in children’s toy and activity interests. The possible role of sex-linked genes and neural mechanisms on gender development are also discussed.   

Iwamasa, G. Y., & Bangi, A. K. (2003). Women's mental health research: History, current status, and future directions. In J. S. Mio & G. Y. Iwamasa (Eds.), Culturally diverse mental health: The challenges of research and resistance (pp. 251–268). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
This chapter discusses mental health issues related to women in psychotherapy other than those involving violence (which was covered in a chapter in the edited book). These issues include depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and eating disorders.

Koenig, A. M., Eagly, A. H., Mitchell, A. A., & Ristikari, T. (2011).  Are leader stereotypes masculine? A meta-analysis of three research paradigms. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 616-642.

This meta-analysis examined the extent to which stereotypes of leaders are masculine. Results showed that studies fell into one of three types, each of which emphasize masculinity in leader stereotypes: (1) Schein's (1973) think manager–think male paradigm, (2) Powell and Butterfield's (1979) agency–communion paradigm, and (3) Shinar's (1975) masculinity–femininity paradigm. Implications for women leaders are explored within the context of role congruity theory.

Law, B. M. (2004). Do 'super masculine' husbands make for unhappy wives? Monitor on Psychology, 35(9), 21.
This article discusses men who display gender role conflict. Available online at:

Livosky, M., Pettijohn, T. F., & Capo, J. R. (2011). Reducing sexist attitudes as a result of completing an undergraduate psychology of gender course. Psychology and Education: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 48(3-4), 56-65.

This article describes a study evaluating the impact of a psychology of gender course as compared with an introduction to psychology course in reducing sexist attitudes. Consistent with previous research, students in the psychology of gender course showed a significantly greater reduction in sexism than students in the introduction to psychology course, thus supporting the use of content-specific courses in reducing prejudicial attitudes.

Lloyd, M. A. (2006). Psychology of gender and related courses. In W. Buskist & S. F. Davis (Eds.), Handbook on the teaching psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
This chapter discusses issues related to teaching Psychology of Gender and related courses. Topics addressed include: opportunities associated with teaching gender courses (e.g., developing critical thinking and developing awareness of gender in everyday life), creating and maintaining a safe classroom environment, and some challenges associated with teaching gender courses (e.g., erroneous assumptions about course content and format, controversial topics, maintaining students' interest in the course, displaced anger, and course-triggered psychological concerns).

Mio, J. S., Koss, M. P., Harway, M., O'Neil, J. M., Geffner, R., Murphy, B. C., & Ivey, D. C. (2003). Violence against women: A silent pandemic. In J. S. Mio & G. Y. Iwamasa (Eds.), Culturally diverse mental health: The challenges of research and resistance (pp. 269–287). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
This chapter is essentially an updated addendum of the Koss et al. (1994) book on violence against women at home, in the workplace, and in the community, with the inclusion of the topics of Women of Color and same-sexed partner violence.

Richmond, K. A., Levant, R. F., & Ladhani, S. C. J. (2012). The varieties of the masculine experience. In R. Josselson, & M. Harway (Eds.), Navigating multiple identities: Race, gender, culture, nationality, and roles. (pp. 59-73). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732074.003.0004

This chapter uses a feminist framework to understand the multiple and intersecting identities of men. It explores the role expectations and strain created by pressure to conform to an idealized male role.

Russo, N. F., Pirlott, A. G., & Cohen, A. B. (2012). The psychology of women and gender in international perspective: Issues and challenges.  In F. T. L. Leong, W. E. Pickren, M. M. Leach, & A. J. Marsella  (Eds.). Internationalizing the psychology curriculum in the United States (pp. 157-178).  New York, NY: Springer.

This chapter discusses universal and culture-specific aspects of gender, presents a summary of the cross-cultural literature on the psychology of women and gender, and provides a variety of print and Internet resources for internationalizing the psychology of gender curriculum. 

Shields, S. A., & Dicicco, E. C. (2011). The social psychology of sex and gender: From gender differences to doing gender. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35(3), 491-499. doi:10.1177/0361684311414823

As an introduction to a special section on the social psychology of sex and gender, this article traces the transformative history of research in this area.

Stewart, A., Cortina, L., & Curtin, N. (2008). Does gender matter in personality psychology? Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(5), 2034-2048. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9004.2008.00145.x

Explores two different perspectives –that of mainstream personality psychologists and feminist psychologists – in regard to the relevance of gender to an understanding of personality.

Szymanski, D. M., & Moffitt, L. B. (2012).Sexism and heterosexism.  In N. A. Fouad, J. A. Carter,  & L. M. Subich. (Eds.), APA handbook of counseling psychology, vol. 2: Practice, interventions, and applications (pp. 361-390). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.  doi:10.1037/13755-015

This chapter provides current research on and examples of the individual, familial, institutional, and sociocultural manifestations of sexism and heterosexism. The authors also address intersectionality issues in terms of oppression across multiple minority identities, and describe interventions for perpetrators and targets of sexism and heterosexism.

van, d. B., & Benschop, Y. (2012). Slaying the sevenheaded dragon: The quest for gender change in academia. Gender, Work and Organization, 19(1), 71-92. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0432.2011.00566.x

This article uses data from an empirical study of the recruitment and selection of full professors in The Netherlands to identify practices that promote and impede gender equality in academia.

Vonk, R., & Ashmore, R. D. (2003). Thinking about gender types: Cognitive organization of female and male types. British Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 257–280.
This article offers a comprehensive look at the subtypes of women and men, focusing on the perceived similarities and differences among them.

Wester, S. R. (2008). Male gender role conflict and multiculturalism: Implications for counseling psychology. The Counseling Psychologist, 36 (2), 294-324.

Directed at counselors and using the APA multicultural guidelines as a framework, this article explores how male gender role socialization and male gender role conflict intersect with race, culture, and sexual orientation.

Articles and Book Chapters (On-line)

Carpenter, S. (2000). Biology and social environments jointly influence gender development. Monitor on Psychology, 31(9), 35.

This brief article claims that too much emphasis has been placed on the effect of environmental factors on gender differences. The main idea is that there may actually be significant biological explanations for the divergences between gender development in children.

Dingfelder, S. F. (2004). Gender bender. Monitor on Psychology, 35(4), 48-49.

This article focuses on a case study of 16 children born with the cloacal  exstrophy which causes males to be born with no penis, or a very small one. These children were reassigned as females at birth and underwent surgery to correct their genitalia. The study followed up with these children (raised as females) when they were 5-16 years old and found that they exhibited male tendencies (ex. rough play) and some of them even self-identified as male. The meaning of this study is that biological factors may have a stronger role in gender development than was one thought.

Southern Arizona Gender Alliance. (2006). Gender identity 101: A transgender primer. Tucson, AZ: Author.

This is a LGBT resource guide for teachers, mental health professionals, and anyone else interested. It includes a list of helpful organizations to contact and a recommended reading list to help get the reader up to speed on LGBT issues.


Sutherland, D. (Writer/Producer/Director). (2006). Country boys [Motion picture]. Boston: WGBH Educational Foundation.
This film follows two boys struggling with identity issues. The making of this film included the involvement of several members of APA Division 51. Available online at:

Web sites

American Psychological Association Division 35: Society for the Psychology of Women
This is the website for APA division 35, the Society for the Psychology of Women. The purpose of this page is to have an organized location for women, men, feminists, and all those interested in the teaching or research of the psychology of women.

American Psychological Association Division 44: Society of the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues
This division of the APA is focused on research, education, and practice in the LGBT community. This site contains research done by the division, descriptions of their current workings, and the list of members of the division.

American Psychological Association Division 51: Society for the Psychological Study
of Men and Masculinity
This division of the APA focuses on educating the public in the psychology of men. The site includes the history of this division, research in the field, links to related websites, and educational information on teaching a psychology of men workshop.

American Psychological Association’s Topics Web site: Women and Men

This part of the APA website focuses on gender similarities and differences. The website includes a diverse range of psychology topics from the perspective of gender. The site includes recent research, current news, and lists of related books and articles.

Human Rights Campaign

This website is the campaign for equal rights for LGBT individuals. The site includes information on laws regarding LGBT rights, current news, and how to get involved in the movement on a local or national level.

Intersex Society of North America

This mission of this website is to end unwanted sex-reassignment surgeries at birth and to help educate the public about the implications of these procedures. It includes a history of the ISNA, laws regarding sex-reassignment procedures, and tips for parents of DSD (disorders of sex development) children.

Lamda Legal Defense Fund

This is a website that provides links for legal help, legal advice, employment opportunities, and general support. This website was designed to serve the LGBT community.

Office of Teaching Resources in Psychology

This is the official website for APA Division 2 and contains many resources to help instructors who teach gender specific courses as well as those who would like to infuse gender issues into their courses.

Psychology of Women Syllabus

This website contains peer reviewed syllabi for psychology of gender courses.

Southern Arizona Gender Alliance

This website provides resources and a supportive community for LGBT individuals while pushing for equal rights. The main focus of this site is how LGBT individuals can get social support and feel comfortable. It includes blogs, event listings, education information, and advocacy information.

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